Globalization and Media

explainitychannel, 2013, Globalization explained,

The video was produced by Explainity GmbH, a channel which makes a variety of videos in diversity of topic. In this video, explainitychannel aims to explain the background of globalization and highlight the idea that globalization is neither good or bad, it all depends on how people deal with all the new possibilities in the future. Thanks to the advanced of technology such as telephone, airplane, train and the internet, the growth of transport and communication has developed quickly. Globalization is defined as the process of exchanging information and goods. In another word, globalization is the worldwide coming together of countries and nations. Since the exchanging of people and goods all over the world, globalization is affected by many elements such as culture, languages, services, knowledge and media, and all of these elements are closely linked and influenced each other. It is also important to note that globalization also has its disadvantages aspects. The video mentions about how people and the environment often suffer by the intense exchange of goods. For example, in the age of globalization, environment is contaminated by the use of airplane, ship and lorry to transport goods over international border. In addition, many people in industrialized countries have lost their job due to the company decides to move production to an economically disadvantaged country.  Furthermore, despite the fact that job opportunity is open up for many employers in economically disadvantaged countries, their right for sufficient insurance, social insurance and health insurance are not completely provided. The video content maker clearly provided the background of globalization and different views about how globalization influence people’s lives. This video is useful for my globalization studying because of its critical view, especially about whether if globalization is good or bad and how it affect to each factors of globalization process.


Lule. J, 2011, Globalisation and Media: global village of Babel, America

“Globalization and Media” is one of the academic book written by Jack Lule in 2011. The chapter focus on the role of the media in globalization. The author emphasizes that there is no globalization without the media. Globalization and media have proceeded together through time. In another word, globalization and media interacts with each other. Without media, global trade cannot evolve since the lack of a flow of information on market, commodities, customer’s behavior or price. Without the intermingling of media and culture, religion, music, poetry or film… cannot wildly be known. In another side, as Jack Luke defined: “the media are people”. When our world is globalizing, people exchange around the world. These people actively bring their ideologies and cultures. Digital media is an example to declare the role of media in globalization. In the age of the internet, the computer allows the user to access the information and news all around the world, which have transformed cultural lives. Relating to global media studies, the book highlights the vital role of media in evolving globalization. Jack Lule skillfully argues that media plays a central role in the globalization processes which includes of both the promises and the pitfalls that globalization poses to modern human society.


Hikikomori – The Japanese’s moral panic

 “Hikikomori is a condition in which the affected individuals isolate themselves from society in their homes for a period exceeding six months. The psychiatrist Tamaki Saitō defines hikikomori as “a state that has become a problem by the late twenties, that involves cooping oneself up in one’s own home and not participating in society for six months or longer, but that does not seem to have another psychological problem as its principal source”. -Wikipedia

Why is Hikimori a moral panic?

Hikimori is a critical issue in Japan now.  This phenomenon describes young people who have an escapism life in society. They are hidden in their own world and refuse to go out. Recognized as hikikomori, these people haven’t participated in society, or shown a desire to do so for at least one year. They merely split from their families and friends.

The phenomenon was alerted when the Japanese government census put the figure at 540,000 for people aged 15-39. But it could easily be double that number. (Butet Rock, 2018,  Photography). Hikimori is the fear which spread among a large number of Japanese residents since the shreds of evidence that the phenomenon will affect badly to the young’s physical and mental health, the domestic economy or even the culture.

Hikikomori as a moral panic

According to Standley Cohen’s stage of moral panic in “Folk Devil and Moral panic”. I would like to explain the stages make the Hikikomori become a new moral panic not only for Japan but also the whole world’s community.

First of all, “Young” is acknowledged as one of six objects of moral panic. Hikikomori directly affects the youth. This issue emerges and creates its own group of people who adore and practice it.

Even though Hikikomori has been existing for a pretty long time. But not until this year,  when the media is priming the issue. They exaggerated the problem that the Japanese young people is getting more and more anti-social nowadays. The media predict the future of the Japanese young generation. They assumed that Hikikomori is becoming a trend which plenty of people will follow and create bad impact on society. The media draw a terrifying future: the economy is stagnant, the culture is not preserved and the population is getting older. Media also play a role in symbolizing an issue. They portray the Hikikomori people as the one who is anti-social, staying home all day long watching movie or reading manga, and they are only active in the night time. The representation created by media make a backlash on social media. Young people exaltedly discuss whether they are Hikikomori or not.

Thirdly, the public is the most important factor which contributes to the moral panic. Indeed, the discussion of Hikikomori consider the disadvantages of this phenomenon and Hikikimori is a type of minimalist lifestyle.

Indeed, the Japanese government published ít initial Guideline on coping with Hikikomori cases along with the results of surveys conducted in health centre of Japan. They do have some action such as establishing limited governmental funding for Hikikomori support and creating more jobs which are regardless of educational backgrounds, communication skills and supported by smooth school-work transition and an underlying stable economy.

Why is the public panic about a moral issue?

According to Cohen’s criticisms of the moral panic theory. The panic feeling comes from feelong of being out of control. People prone to be panic about the things which out of their knowledge.

Work sites

Holthus B & Manzenreitor, 2017, ‘Life course, Happiness and Well-being in Japan‘, New York

Kingston J, 2014, ‘Critical Issue in Contemporary Japan’, New York


Social media or place for demostrating democracy

Social media is the place for entertaining, making new friends or even promoting products… But to some extents, when you connect the dots and start operating it, you will find above all, social media is the modern “public sphere”. In this writing, I would like to discuss especially Facebook network.

What is “public sphere”?

Basically, “public sphere” is the place where people can come and freely discuss and identify societal problems. Furthermore, “the public sphere as a virtual or imaginary community which does not necessarily exist in any identifiable space” –  German philosopher Jürgen Habermas defined. According to that concept, Facebook can be admitted as a public sphere.

How does Facebook operate as a public sphere?

As the place includes all the active users to express their ideas and beliefs, Facebook keeps innovating its operation in order to fulfil public’s demand for discussing. Facebook now timely updating news on the diversity of the field such as entertainment, social news or even political events… Beside utilizing user’s expression by creating groups, hashtags or EdgeRank, Facebook is social media which pioneered in joining in the political action. For example, in the parliamentary election in May 2010, Facebook prompted its users to vote online by having applied the application that can help people vote and participate in debates, votes and petitions.

Being opposed to Habermas’s public sphere concept which excludes a wide range of people, Facebook is open for everyone. Of course, that leads to many consequences. On the contrary of the fact that users must deal with many negative and distort ideologies, Facebook is more democratic and open to discuss issues. Facebook implements the discussing activity by applying the model of disagreement which basically allows people to discuss more and more by exposing users to the perspective that they don’t agree with. Besides, users can actively create their own space such as fanpages or groups to discuss issues with individuals who have the same interest.

Facebook’s roles in creating a “public sphere”

In my point of view, since the effort to make discussions, Facebook in particular and common media in general, are striving to serve public’s interest and ensure both of democracy the “dominant ideology”. It plays a vital role as a place for “encoding and decoding” activities and it is designed to facilitate the sharing both of individual and group of individual.

To sum up, social media holds the main position as public sphere of discourse. The media plays a role as a provider of a medium discuss issues, and the most important: “Media is the sword arm of democracy” (


Media audience through my lens

As a media maker, understanding our target audience is not only in order to create great content but also to achieve the results that you want by knowing your audiences and the question is “Is “Bobo doll” always true?”

First and foremost, I want to share my own experience as a media audience a year ago. During 2017, Vietnamese TV series had a popular drama: ‘Living with mother-in-law’ made by director Truong Khoa.

First of all, it’s necessary to understand why this movie was so hot. In Vietnam, there are a lot of prejudices about the mother-in-law, an irritating, aggressive or even cruel woman and “Living with mother-in-law” excellently built a character fit so well with that assumption.

The explosion of debating about mother-in-law topic somehow went too far, there were a lot of provoked stories about cruel mother-in-law uploaded on social media and young women felt scared of being married. Not until when I know about The Reception Theory which was produced during the 1970s and early 1980s, I was impressed by the media creators’ excellent manipulation. It’s not exaggerated to say that The Hypodermic theory was totally true when the Vietnamese audiences were too easy to be influenced and the media works were like a drug and the audiences were drugged.

In another point of view, I strongly believe that the confliction among the audiences’ mindsets is the key to make a topic popular. It’s clear that if the audience is too easy to agree with the message, then what’s next? They will accept it as a fact and no more discussion about it, the topic cannot be a hot topic appeared on social media. For example, at that time, Vietnamese audience felt like expressing their idea about “whether mother-in-law is that cruel?” or “Should young couple live with mother-in-law after married”.

Due to The Reception theory, the media audience will consider how a message is encoded and then decoded with their own perspective. There are 3 types of audience decoding, they may be dominant, negotiated or oppositional since their different experience, belief, gender or even their current mood. And I think the greatness of one producer is to have the ability to make audience share their thoughts in order to fulfil their messages.

To sum up, understanding media audience is to know how active they are and how can we use their decoding to make producers’ message well-known and understood, not to manipulate people’s thoughts.